Establishing Correct Sports Concept to Avoid Sports Injuries of Children and Adolescents; Warm up and Stretching Should Not Be Neglected

For children and adolescents, sports are an important means to promote healthy growth. Proper sports are conducive to promoting the healthy development of children and adolescents and improving their physical quality. However, incorrect sports will damage children and adolescents in sports. Therefore, correct sports concepts should be established before sports, and parents and teachers should provide correct guidance and guidance.
Li Liang, an associate researcher of the Scientific Fitness and Health Promotion Research Center of the Scientific Research Institute of the General Administration of Sport of the People's Republic of China, said that children and adolescents are still in the development stage, and their structures such as nerves and muscles are not fully developed. Their physical qualities such as strength, sensitivity, balance and coordination are low. A large number of activities are likely to make their bodies bear overload pressure, leading to injuries. In addition, teenagers have a weak sense of self-protection, which is very easy to cause excessive exercise in the process of sports, leading to sports injuries. Therefore, children and adolescents should receive adequate physical education before sports, develop a good habit of warming up before exercise, and strengthen the sense of self-protection. After sports injuries occur, the injured parts should be handled timely and correctly.
In the warm-up before exercise, many of the actions we take for granted are actually wrong. According to the Scientific Fitness Guide for Children and Adolescents jointly produced by the Department of Youth Sports of the General Administration of Sport of the People's Republic of China and the Institute of Sports Science of the General Administration of Sport of the People's Republic of China, when warming up, standing forward may lead to serious lower back strain, windmill may lead to lower back tension and exert greater pressure on the intervertebral disc, and head and neck joint circular exercise may compress the nerves in the neck and bring greater pressure on the cervical spine, Plough stretching may cause greater pressure on the nerves and intervertebral discs in the neck and back... These improper exercises will exert excessive pressure on the joints and spine, which will adversely affect our health. Especially for children who are still growing up, these actions are more dangerous and easy to cause damage to the body.
Li Liang said: "Before various sports activities, children should activate and preheat the main muscle groups, reduce muscle viscosity, increase the range of motion of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle joints, and reduce the risk of sports injury. Correct warm-up can carry out dynamic chest expansion, standing thoracic spine rotation, dynamic lateral extension, active stretching of latissimus dorsi, bilateral trunk flexors, backward extension, active stretching of the anterior bundle of deltoid muscle and arms Back extension, elbow flexion and push back, wrist flexion and extension, cat and dog thoracic spine extension, etc. After sports activities, the muscles should also be stretched and relaxed to promote the metabolism of the body and restore muscle elasticity. "
Many people will experience muscle swelling and soreness after exercise. This is because during exercise, energy substances will produce lactic acid in the anaerobic metabolism process. If you do not stretch and relax in time, lactic acid will accumulate and you will feel swollen and sore. If you do not stretch and relax after a long period of exercise, the muscles will become very stiff, lack elasticity, and even cause damage. Therefore, it is very necessary to stretch and relax the muscles with children after accompanying them to exercise. The Scientific Fitness Guide for Children and Adolescents also recommends a set of recovery and regeneration stretching programs, which can not only effectively relieve muscle soreness and tension after exercise, but also promote blood circulation, help maintain body flexibility, and strengthen muscle strength:
Popliteus - Passive stretching - Single leg hip flexion
1. Stand with left foot in front and right foot behind; Keep your left heel on the ground and stretch your left leg as straight as possible; The right leg is bent to support the body, and the hands are placed above the knee joint of the right leg; Look ahead.
2. Keep your legs still, lean forward until your hamstrings feel moderately pulled, and look at your left foot. Keep stretching until the specified time is reached. The same is true for the opposite side.
Hip flexor passive stretch kneeling starter lunge
1. The body is in a split kneeling position, with the left leg in the front, the knee bent at a 90 degree angle, the right leg behind, and the knee touching the ground; Keep your back straight, place your hands on your left thigh, and look ahead.
2. Move the hip forward until the flexor of the hip has a medium degree of traction, and the stretching action lasts for 10~30 seconds. Restore the initial action and switch to the opposite side until the specified time is completed.
Half Kneeling - Quadriceps Stretch
1. The body is half kneeling on the front and back legs; The left leg is in front, and the knee is bent at a 90 degree angle; The right leg is behind, the right knee is on the ground, and the right hand holds the instep of the right foot; Keep your back straight and pull your right foot towards your right hip with your right hand.
2. Slowly lean forward and straighten the left arm and lift it up until the quadriceps femoris of the right leg feels moderately pulled. Keep stretching until the specified time is reached. The same is true for the opposite side.
Trunk extensors - passive stretching - sitting forward bending
1. Sit in a sitting position, with your legs stretched out as far as possible, your arms on the inside of your legs, and your hands touching the ground; Look ahead.
2. Keep your legs still, extend your arms forward, lower your head with your chest and lean to the ground until your trunk extensors feel moderately pulled. Keep stretching until the specified time is reached.
Supine single leg hip rotation - hamstring and gluteus stretching
1. The body is in a supine position, with arms raised horizontally on the ground, palms facing down, and eyes looking directly above.
2. Keep the upper limb and trunk still, bend the hip and knee of the right leg to rotate to the left until the hamstring muscle of the right leg and the gluteus muscle of the right leg have a moderate degree of traction. Resume the initial action, switch to the opposite side, and alternate legs until the specified number of times is completed.
Abdominal - Active Stretch Dynamic Cobra
1. The body is in a prone position, with elbows bent on both sides of the chest, and hands and forearms touching the ground to support the trunk; Look ahead.
2. Keep your lower limbs still, stretch your arms straight, and push your chest off the ground until your abdominal muscles feel moderately pulled. Resume the initial action and cycle until the specified number of times is completed.
Abdominals, deltoids, hip flexors - active stretching arch
1. The body is in a prone position, with both legs extended backward, and both hands grasping the instep or ankle of the same side foot, and looking at the ground.
2. The head is tilted back and the trunk is tilted back in an arch shape; At the same time, pull the instep or ankle upward with both hands to make both knees off the ground until the target muscle has a moderate pulling feeling. Keep stretching until the specified time is reached. (Transferred from the 06 edition of China Sports News on March 17)